We conclude that individual social capital needs to be explicitly transferred to the organizational level to have a sustained effect on inter-unit intellectual capital. January - It should be the aim of any academic journal — or academic researcher for that matter — to make an impact. Although publishing high-quality papers is a noble aim in itself, if these papers do not have any impact, the activity would seem rather pointless.
However, it is not easy to define impact or measure it objectively. Traditionally, many academics in management have been most concerned with the impact of their work on other academics, and this is certainly what seems to be most highly rewarded in many universities.
Unfortunately, impact on practitioners and students is very difficult to quantify. Therefore, this short editorial by necessity focuses on the more limited academic impact only, assuming that at least some of the high academic impact papers will also have an impact on practice.
Rankings of authors and institutions, however, are subject to a range of potentially arbitrary decisions: This commentary briefly critiques Xu et al.
December - One of the most complex challenges that multinational corporations MNCs face is harmonizing the opposing forces of standardization versus localization. Standardization can take place towards two different poles: HQ practices and global best practices, wherever they originate from. As we believe managing the challenge of localization versus standardization towards either HQ or global best practices is the key to MNC success we call it the Golden Triangle for MNCs. We also argue that it is often standardization towards global best practices that is more relevant than either standardization towards HQ practices or localization.
Hence our study supports what have been called geocentric or transnational corporate models, where worldwide learning and knowledge transfer is paramount, regardless of where the knowledge in question originates. Download paper free access!
Download paper 73 KB - Publication details. This paper presents an alternative source of data Google Scholar, GS as well as three alternatives to the JIF to assess journal impact the h-index, g-index and the number of citations per paper. Because of its broader range of data sources, the use of GS generally results in more comprehensive citation coverage in the area of Management and International Business.
The use of GS particularly benefits academics publishing in sources that are not well covered in ISI. As such, they provide academics and universities committed to JIFs with a good alternative for journals that are not ISI-indexed. July - Creating rankings of academic journals is an important but contentious issue. It is of especial interest in the UK at this time late as we are only two years away from the submission date for the next Research Assessment Exercise RAE the importance of which, for UK universities, can hardly be overstated.
The purpose of this paper is to present a journal ranking for business and management based on a statistical analysis of the Harzing dataset Harzing, The primary aim of the analysis is two-fold — to investigate relationships between the different rankings, including that between peer rankings and citation behaviour; and to develop a ranking based on four groups that could be useful for the RAE.
Looking at the different rankings, the main conclusions are that there is in general a high degree of conformity between them as shown by a principal components analysis. Cluster analysis is used to create four groups of journals relevant to the RAE.
The higher groups are found to correspond well with previous studies of top management journals and also gave, unlike them, equal coverage to all the management disciplines. The RAE Business and Management panel have a huge and unenviable task in trying to judge the quality of over 10, publications and they will inevitable have to resort to some standard mechanistic procedures to do so.
This work will hopefully contribute by producing a ranking based on a statistical analysis of a variety of measures. We focus on their knowledge applications and experiential learning, two assignment-based outcomes of potential strategic value to the firm. In contrast, their experiential learning derives from a frequent access to host country local knowledge that is subsequently adapted to the global corporate context. From a practical perspective we view the knowledge gained through experiential learning as an invaluable resource for both present and future corporate assignments.
January - With this paper we intend to open up the debate on the influence of language on the way multinational companies MNCs manage their subsidiary operations. We explain the importance of the field and expose a dearth of prior research. We then propose an integrative model that consists of two coupled vicious cycles: The management cycle suggests implications of the language barrier for various aspects of the HQ-subsidiary relationship: January - This paper contributes to two recurring and very central debates in the international management literature: Using a large-scale sample of multinationals headquartered in the US, Japan and Germany as well as subsidiaries of multinationals from these three countries in the two other respective countries, we test the extent to which HRM practices in subsidiaries are characterized by country-of-origin, localization, and dominance effects.
Our results show that for German and Japanese subsidiaries the dominance effect is most important, i. For US subsidiaries localization effects are particularly important. The lack of country-of-origin effects for Japanese and German multinationals leads us to a conclusion that is of significant theoretical as well as practical relevance. Multinationals might limit export of country-of origin practices to what they consider to be their core competences and converge to best practices in other areas.
We argue that up to the late s, management practices in Europe were still rather diverse, heavily influenced by different national traditions and institutional differences. From the early s onwards, under the context of globalisation, convergence tendencies became more prevalent. However, the focal point was not so much a specific European management model, but the American model instead. September - This chapter attempts to provide a comparison of country-of-origin effects for a very wide range of aspects of the HQ-subsidiary relationship and for two time periods: We will first discuss the sources and mechanisms of operation of the country-of-origin effect.
Subsequently, we will explain our choice of organisational practices and countries. We then provide an overview of our methods and the results of our empirical investigation. A short discussion and conclusion section concludes the chapter. July - One of the central questions in the literature on multinational companies MNCs is the extent to which MNC subsidiaries act and behave as local firms local isomorphism versus the extent to which their practices resemble those of the parent company or some other global standard internal consistency.
Drawing on the resource-based view and resource dependency theory, this paper aims to provide an insight into the interplay of several corporate-level organisational factors that affect the transfer of HRM practices across borders. Download paper 97 KB - Publication details. May - Studies of attitudes across countries generally rely on a comparison of aggregated mean scores to Likert-scale questions.
This presupposes that when people complete a questionnaire, their answers are based on the substantive meaning of the items to which they respond. Hence, the studies we conduct might simply reflect differences in the way people respond to surveys, rather than picking up real differ-ences in management phenomena across countries.
Our country study shows that there are major differences in response styles between countries that both confirm and extend earlier research. Country-level characteristics such as power distance, collectivism, uncertainty avoidance and extraversion all significantly influence response styles such as acquiescence and extreme response styles.
Finally, English language competence is positively related to extreme response styles and negative related to middle response styles.
We close by discussing implications for cross-national research. Download paper 76 KB - Publication details. A four-fold typology of subsidiary roles - global innovators, integrated players, implementors and local innovators - is tested using a sample of subsidiaries of MNCs headquartered in the US, Japan, UK, Germany, France and the Netherlands.
Results confirm the typology and show that different subsidiary roles are associated with different control mechanisms, relative capabilities and product flows. In comparison to earlier studies, our results show an increased differentiation between subsidiaries, as well as an increase in the relative importance of both knowledge and product flows between subsidiaries suggesting that MNCs are getting closer to the ideal-type of the transnational company.
December - Based on a international mail survey covering subsidiaries of MNCs headquartered in the USA, Japan, the UK, Germany, France and the Netherlands, we investigate the impact of geographical distance on the role that subsidiaries play in the MNC network and the way they are managed. To this end, we compare Australian and New Zealand subsidiaries - who provide a significant example of geographically isolation - with subsidiaries in other countries. In addition, both intra-company flows and the type of control mechanisms applied by HQ reflect their geographical isolation.
We discuss the implications of these findings and provide recommendations for management and competitiveness in Australia and New Zealand. Download paper 91 KB - Publication details. I show that this discipline follows the general Australian trend of declining impact, measured as citations per paper, from the mids.
The discipline combines the highest ranking in quantity with the lowest ranking in quality. Seven possible explanations for this pattern are discussed. October - After the enlargement of the European Union EU with ten new countries on the 1st of May , international labour mobility within the EU has become a rather contentious issue. This article looks at international mobility for a highly skilled group of people: In this context, we first investigate what students across Europe are looking for in their ideal job and show that students from both Eastern Europe and Turkey differ substantially from other European countries in this respect.
This analysis shows that, overall, students from Eastern Europe and Turkey are less keen to work internationally than students from many other European countries. On the other hand, the final part of the article shows that students from Eastern Europe and Turkey generally seem well prepared for international work in terms of their language skills.
They prefer to work in Anglophone and Southern European countries and previous international experience and language skills are shown to be a major influence on the extent and direction of international mobility. Download paper 50 KB - Publication details. June - In this article, we review the established understanding of the concept of expatriate failure, discuss its associated problems and present a more sophisticated and comprehensive understanding of the concept.
We argue that it might well be time to abandon the concept of expatriate failure altogether and instead draw on the general HR literature to analyse problems related to turnover and performance management in an expatriate context. Download paper 74 KB - Publication details. April - Cross-national research is plagued by many obstacles.
This article focuses on one of these obstacles: We investigated whether the language of the questionnaire influences response patterns.
More specifically we tested the cultural accommodation hypothesis: Do respondents subconsciously adjust their responses in a way that reflects the cultural values associated with the language of the questionnaire?
We tested this hypothesis with a sample of 3, undergraduate students in 24 countries. Half of the students in each country received an English-language questionnaire, while the other half received the same questionnaire in their native language. Three types of questions were included in the questionnaire: Comparison with a control group of students in the UK and the US showed cultural accommodation to be present in a substantial proportion of the comparisons for all three types of questions.
Consequences and recommendations for cross-national research are discussed. Download paper 64 KB - Publication details. It investigates how factors originating from the cultural and institutional framework of the host country impact on this transfer. Our empirical findings indicate that subsidiaries have adapted their HRM practices to a considerable extent, although some practices are more localised than others.
Specifically, practices that do not fit well with Greek culture or are in contrast to employee regulations show a low level of transfer. On the other hand, our interviews revealed that significant cultural changes are underway and that the institutional environment is gradually getting more relaxed, leaving more room to manoeuvre for MNCs.
January - Our research not only addresses the strategic purposes of expatriate assignments within multinational corporations but, unlike most earlier studies, extends the investigation to include their path-dependent outcomes.
These purpose categories are then conceptually related in terms of a four-part typological matrix based on individual-level knowledge flow direction and role focus. Following a review of prior assignment purpose studies we posit that strategic expatriate assignment purposes should be considered not in isolation but relative to their potential outcomes.
Adopting a single case research design with multi-method data collection we demonstrate the emergent nature of strategic assignment outcomes. It is shown for our transnational case organization that knowledge acquisition or learning by expatriates is an underestimated strategic assignment outcome, more so than either business or organization-related knowledge applications. Download paper 86 KB - Publication details. January - This article investigates whether the September 11 attacks had an impact on cultural values and the level of cosmopolitanism of US university students.
Our results - drawn from two separate quasi-experimental studies - support the two latter hypotheses. In addition, supplementary analyses showed that, after the September 11 attacks, students exhibited a tendency to trade in variety, adventure and challenge for security and stability in their ideal job after graduation.
Implications for management and for cross-cultural management research are discussed. Download paper 52 KB - Publication details. January - With this paper we intend to open up the debate on the influence of language on the way multinational companies MNCs manage. Subsequently, we define the "language barrier" and elaborate on the causes underlying this barrier.
Finally, eight propositions are formulated with regard to the implications of the language barrier for a core aspect of the HQ-subsidiary relationship: This issue fits in the wider convergence-divergence debate that has been the concern of many cross-cultural researchers. Using data collected from Greek firms and subsidiaries of multinationals located in Greece, we compare the two groups on specific HRM practices. Our empirical results indicate that HR practices in Greek firms reflect national culture to a great extent.
Moreover, they imply that in some areas MNC subsidiaries have realised a considerable degree of adaptation, embracing practices that are in line with the Greek cultural environment. Download paper 88 KB - Publication details.
June - This conceptual paper examines the role of country-of-origin effects in MNCs. It deals with definitional problems and discusses both the sources of the country-of-origin effect, and the mechanisms through which it manifests itself. The strength of the country-of-origin effect is hypothesized to be moderated by factors related to both the home country and the MNC.
January - In order to be able to advance scientific knowledge, researchers should consciously explore and critically evaluate alternative explanations of the phenomena under investigation.
We feel that research in the area of entry mode choice has neglected these recommendations where it concerns the impact of cultural distance CD on entry mode choice.
In this article, we argue that sample idiosyncrasies, coupled with an almost blind confidence in one specific measurement of CD, have led researchers in this field to systematically overestimate the role of CD in entry mode decisions. August - With this paper we intend to open up the debate on the influence of language on the way multinational organizations manage. Using sociolinguistic theories we define the "Language Barrier" and advance a series of propositions that propose an agenda for future empirical research in this area.
We conclude by identifying the drivers underpinning the language barrier and use these to propose an approach for the future operationalization of the language barrier construct. Download paper 75 KB - Publication details.
June - The importance of language management in multinational companies has never been greater than today. Multinationals are becoming ever more conscious of the importance of global co-ordination as a source of competitive advantage, and language remains the ultimate barrier to aspirations of international harmonization.
In this article, we will review the solutions open to multinational companies in terms of language management. Before doing so, however, we will discuss the aforementioned trend to globalisation, outline the dimensions of the language barrier and illustrate its consequences. March - This article investigates whether the language of the questionnaire influences response patterns. More specifically we test the cultural accommodation hypothesis: Do respondents subconsciously adjust their responses in a way that reflects the cultural values associated with the language in question?
We tested this hypothesis with a sample of undergraduate students in seven countries. Three type of questions were included in the questionnaire: Cultural accommodation would be present when the mean scores for students who responded to the English-language questionnaire were closer to the mean scores of a control group of English students than to the mean scores of their fellow students who responded to the native language questionnaire.
This was shown to be the case for a substantial number of the cultural values and job characteristic questions but not for the elective questions. Consequences and recommendations for cross-cultural research are discussed. Download paper 81 KB - Publication details. November - The aim of this article is to get a clearer picture of why multinational companies MNCs send out expatriates.
We identify three organisational functions of international transfers: Based on an empirical study with results from subsidiaries of MNCs from 9 different home countries, located in 22 different host countries, we show that the importance that is attached to these functions differs between subsidiaries in MNCs from different home countries, between subsidiaries in different host regions and in addition varies with the level of cultural difference.
We argue that these differences might have important consequences for expatriate management. Download paper 71 KB - Publication details. We also compare these countries to the US and Japan and assess to what extent conver-gence has taken place.
For a more detailed discussion of the convergence versus divergence debate on a world-wide and European scale see Harzing and Sorge.
We argue that the generalization of results of studies of individual European countries to a wider European pattern is inappropriate even for multinational companies. European MNCs cannot be seen as a homogeneous group and due attention should be paid to the representation of European MNCs from different countries in any research design. Download paper 89 KB - Publication details. October - We examine the importance of societal embeddedness and universal contingencies in the organizational practices at the international level of multinational enterprises, based on a study comparing European Finnish, French, German, Dutch, Swiss, Swedish, British , American and Japanese multinational enterprises.
Although multinationals are highly internationalized by definition, our study shows their organizational control practices at the international level to be more than anything else explained by their country of origin. Universal contingencies such as size and industry are on the other hand more related to internationalization strategy. Internationalization strategy and organizational control are associated with different sets of variables; to this extent they appear more de-coupled with regard to each other than the literature suggests.
Multinationals appear to follow tracks of co-ordination and control in which they have become embedded in their country-of-origin. Nationally specific institutions and culture have to be interpreted as particularistic but universally practicable facilitators of internationally competing organizational practices.
July - This study investigates executive staffing practices in foreign subsidiaries of MNCs. Firmly grounded in a literature review of the reasons for employing either PCNs parent country nationals or HCNs host country nationals in top management positions in foreign subsidiaries, a number of factors influencing the choice between these alternatives is identified.
Using a combination of an archival and mail survey research method, the influence of each of these factors is empirically tested with a sample of nearly observations. May - This article investigates the role of expatriate managers in multinational companies.
We discuss three key organisational functions of expatriation: In the last function, international transfers are used as an informal co-ordination and control strategy. The article explores this role of international transfers in detail and also refers to a direct way in which expatriates can control subsidiaries. A large-scale mail survey offers empirical evidence for the role that expatriates play in controlling foreign subsidiaries and shows under which circumstances the different types of control are most important.
May - This paper adds an important explanatory variable to the well-established list of factors shown to influence the choice between foreign acquisitions and greenfield investments: Using a citation network of 60 references on expatriate failure rates as a case study, I show that all of these guidelines are violated in published research.
Inappropriate referencing can lead to self-perpetuating myths as it has done in the area of expatriate failure rates where the firmly entrenched myth of high expatriate failure rates is shown not be substantiated by any empirical evidence. The implications of this for both academics and practitioners are discussed.
It appears that inappropriate referencing might actually be undermining our academic credibility. June - This article describes the results of a cross-national industrial mail survey in 22 countries. Response rates are shown to vary considerably across countries and several explanations for these differences in response rates are put forward and tested.
Our results show that, when compared to non-respondents, respondents are geographically and culturally closer to the Netherlands the country from which the questionnaires were sent , are more internationally oriented, work in smaller subsidiaries and in companies not listed on the Global Fortune and come from countries with a lower level of power distance. In addition, there is some indication that English language capacity might be a factor influencing response rates as well.
Based on these results, various recommendations for improving response rates in cross-national mail surveys are put forward. You can create an account from within Papers. Papers Online allows you to access collections and publications from a browser. Create a collection to share the latest publications with your lab, another to organize your journal club, and another to gather the references for that next manuscript.
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Local and shared publications are kept separate: Papers Online is a web application, so you can sign in and view your publications. Theoretical results on learning to play against certain classes of simple, imperfect opponents. Machine learning in computer chess: A wide-ranging review of machine learning applied to computer chess. The methods used are categorized as induction of endgame classifiers, explanation-based learning, case-based reasoning, and evaluation function learning.
Knowledge discovery in chess databases: Proposes that data mining in chess databases would be a fruitful line of inquiry. A parallel computer plays backgammon by rolling out positions in parallel.
Includes information about a learning bridge program. MACII is a case-based reasoning program for the game of chess. It uses chunking and a similarity method to find positions in its case-base similar to the current position. It can provide advice to a performance chess program. Informal tests with the chess program Phoenix suggested that MACII helped Phoenix avoid making errors immediately after leaving its opening book, a common computer weakness.
A machine learning approach to the game of go , 7 pages Thore Graepel Online abstract the postscript link was broken when I tried it. Suggests that machine learning is a good way to create a strong go program. Proposes a board representation called the Common Fate Graph CFG --showing what points on the board will share a common fate at the end of the game--that can be used with temporal difference learning.
They trained support vector machines SVM and kernel perceptrons to solve go problems tsume go and play 9x9 go. For 9x9 go playing, the training data consisted of games by strong humans played on the Internet Go Server. In two sample games against gnugo, the SVM program lost both. Discusses the effects of various factors on the strength of the learned player, with experimental data. An adaptive video game using the method of temporal differences Tim Groth Text file.
A student project, Neuro-Pong. The main goal was to make the game player an interesting opponent for humans.
A simple adaptive procedure leading to correlated equilibrium Sergiu Hart and Andreu Mas-Colell Web page, with online abstract and links to postscript. Also available from EconWPA.
A game theoretic analysis showing that a simple learning algorithm converges to a specific kind of optimum. Bootstrap learning of alpha-beta-evaluation functions , 5 pages Alois Heinz and Christoph Hense Postscript.
Proposes learning evaluation functions in the form of decision trees which can use internal alpha-beta cutoffs to speed calculation taking the alpha and beta values from the search tree. The authors trained progressively stronger evaluators for the game of malawi, using each player to produce training data for its successor, with good results.
Efficient neural net alpha-beta-evaluators , 4 pages Alois Heinz Postscript. Converts the decision tree evaluators of the previous paper into tree-shaped networks, which can be further trained to increase accuracy. A graduate thesis from the University of Freiburg. The title means "learning of classification trees for game positions". The thesis includes work on the game of malawi. You can get a quick view of the general state of the art.
The famous Scientific American article about the Deep Thought chess program. Unsupervised learning of go Patterns Antti Huima Web page. Vector Quantization VQ for learning patterns with suggested moves in the game of go. Explorations of the practical issues of learning prediction-control tasks using temporal difference learning methods , over 70 pages Charles L.
Explores the temporal difference algorithm TD lambda with radial basis function neural networks on two tasks, one of which is tic-tac-toe. A compilation-based model of limited-lookahead learning Todd Johnson , Jiajie Zhang and Hongbin Wang Compressed postscript, from this ftp site.
BURL, a psychological model of game learning. It was implemented in SOAR and applied to tic-tac-toe. The title means "genetic algorithms for the determination of heuristic evaluation functions in games". The thesis includes work on the game of reversi, of which othello is a recent variant.
There is an online abstract also in German. It is a graduate thesis from the University of Freiburg. The title means "learning evaluation functions using Adaptive Logical Networks". Learning of position evaluation in the game of othello Anton Leousky Postscript, with an online abstract.
I have not been able to view or print this paper; I suspect that the postscript may be faulty. The abstract reports that a neural network reached intermediate strength at othello by self-play using temporal differences.
What a neural network can learn about othello Anton Leousky and Paul Utgoff Web page, with online abstract. Also available as postscript. Compares three neural network architectures in the task of learning othello evaluation functions by temporal differences, and analyzes what the networks learned.
Markov games as a framework for multi-agent reinforcement learning , 7 pages Michael L. Littman Postscript, with online abstract. Extends reinforcement learning theory with game theory. Demonstrates learning of a simplified soccer-like game played on a 4x5 grid. A generalized reinforcement-learning model: Convergence and applications , 9 pages Michael L.
Presents a generalization of the Markov decision process, with special reference to Q-learning and two-player games. Derivative evaluation function learning using genetic operators , 16 pages David H. Lorenz and Shaul Markovitch Compressed postscript.
Learning the derivative of the evaluation function. Tested with the game of checkers. A checkers program whose evaluator is a neural network trained by temporal differences, using self-play. The paper also serves as a manual for users of the software; see the online software page. Incorporating advice into agents that learn from reinforcements , 29 pages Richard Maclin and Jude W. Also available as compressed postscript. It translates user advice into extra network nodes, which then participate in learning like the other nodes.
It was tested on a video game-like task. Incorporating advice into agents that learn from reinforcements , 6 pages Richard Maclin and Jude W. A shorter version of the preceding paper with the same title. Learning of resource allocation strategies for game playing , 16 pages Shaul Markovitch and Yaron Sella Compressed postscript. An abstract is buried on this page. Learning how much time to spend on each move.
The learning method is less sophisticated than the non-learning methods currently employed by chess programs. Tuning evaluation functions for search 6 pages Chris McConnell Postscript. This appears to be an extended abstract rather than a paper. Mentions a new technique for estimating evaluation function parameters from a database of human games with some extra annotation. Kinglet Chris Moreton Web page. A genetic algorithm plays the game of Kinglet, a chess variant.
Learning to play games from experience: An application of artificial neural networks and temporal difference learning , over 70 pages Daniel Kenneth Olson Compressed postscript. Learning blackjack and tic-tac-toe with temporal differences, keeping the goal of a more general learning system in sight. Exploratory learning in the game of go Barney Pell Compressed postscript, with an online abstract.
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Collaborate, share and discover via any browser with Papers Online. Manage shared collections collaboratively and create your reading list. This page contains pre-publication versions of all of my accepted papers.