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Follow Us on Facebook. The army was already being reorganised and supplied when he arrived, and he found that the situation was rapidly improving. He was soon able to carry out the plan for the invasion of Italy that he had been advocating for years, which provided for an advance over the Apennines near Altare to attack the enemy position of Ceva. Bonaparte countered by attacking and crushing the isolated right wing of the allied armies at the Battle of Montenotte on 12 April.
The next day he defeated an Austro-Sardinian force at the Battle of Millesimo. He then won a victory at the Second Battle of Dego , driving the Austrians northeast, away from their Piedmontese allies. A week later, on 28 April, the Piedmontese signed an armistice at Cherasco , withdrawing from the hostilities. On 18 May they signed a peace treaty at Paris , ceding Savoy and Nice and allowing the French bases to be used against Austria.
After a short pause, Napoleon carried out a brilliant flanking manoeuvre, and crossed the Po at Piacenza , nearly cutting the Austrian line of retreat.
The Austrians escaped after the Battle of Fombio , but had their rear-guard mauled at Lodi on 10 May, after which the French took Milan. Bonaparte then advanced eastwards again, drove off the Austrians in the Battle of Borghetto and in June began the Siege of Mantua. Mantua was the strongest Austrian base in Italy. Meanwhile, the Austrians retreated north into the foothills of the Tyrol.
Wurmser attacked toward Mantua along the east side of Lake Garda , sending Peter Quasdanovich down the west side in an effort to envelop Bonaparte. Bonaparte exploited the Austrian mistake of dividing their forces to defeat them in detail, but in so doing, he abandoned the siege of Mantua, which held out for another six months Carl von Clauswitz mentioned in On War that the siege might have been able to be kept up if Bonaparte had circumvallated the city . Wurmser retreated to the Tyrol, and Bonaparte resumed the siege.
Bonaparte overran the holding force at the Battle of Rovereto. Then he followed Wurmser down the Brenta valley, to fall upon and defeat the Austrians at the Battle of Bassano on 8 September. Wurmser elected to march for Mantua with a large portion of his surviving troops. This left nearly 30, Austrians trapped in the fortress. This number rapidly diminished due to disease, combat losses, and hunger. At first they proved victorious over the French at Bassano , Calliano , and Caldiero.
The French then turned on Davidovich in great strength and chased him into the Tyrol. This prevented the Spanish fleet from rendezvousing with the French, removing a threat of invasion to Britain. However, the British fleet was weakened over the rest of the year by the Spithead and Nore mutinies , which kept many ships in port through the summer. They were met by a quickly assembled group of around British reservists , militia and sailors under the command of John Campbell, 1st Baron Cawdor.
Finally, on 2 February, Wurmser surrendered Mantua and 18, troops. The Papal forces sued for peace, which was granted at Tolentino on 19 February. Napoleon was now free to attack the Austrian heartland. Archduke Charles of Austria hurried from the German front to defend Austria, but he was defeated at the Tagliamento on 16 March, and Napoleon proceeded into Austria, occupying Klagenfurt and preparing for a rendezvous with Joubert in front of Vienna. The victories of Napoleon had frightened the Austrians into making peace, and they concluded the Peace of Leoben in April, ending hostilities.
However, his absence from Italy had allowed the outbreak of the revolt known as the Veronese Easters on 17 April, which was put down eight days later. Although Britain remained at war with France, this effectively ended the First Coalition.
Austria and France also partitioned Venice between them. The military objective of the expedition is not entirely clear, but may have been to threaten British dominance in India.
Napoleon sailed from Toulon to Alexandria , taking Malta on the way, and landing in June. Marching to Cairo , he won a great victory at the Battle of the Pyramids ; however, his fleet was sunk by Nelson at the Battle of the Nile , stranding him in Egypt. Napoleon spent the remainder of the year consolidating his position in Egypt.
The French government also took advantage of internal strife in Switzerland to invade , establishing the Helvetian Republic and annexing Geneva. An expeditionary force was sent to County Mayo , in Ireland, to assist in the rebellion against Britain in the summer of It had some success against British forces, most notably at Castlebar , but was ultimately routed while trying to reach Dublin.
French ships sent to assist them were captured by the Royal Navy off County Donegal. The French had taken this territory in , but it was officially theirs in due to a treaty with Austria. It was resolved peaceably with the Convention of Britain and Austria organized a new coalition against France in , including for the first time the Russian Empire , although no action occurred until except against the kingdom of the Two Sicilies.
In Egypt, Napoleon had consolidated his control of the country for the time being. Soon after the beginning of the year, he mounted an invasion of Syria, capturing El Arish and Jaffa. By May, with plague rampant in his army and no sign of success against the city, Napoleon was forced to retreat into Egypt.
In July, Turkey, with the help of the British navy, mounted an invasion by sea from Rhodes. Napoleon attacked the Turkish beachheads and scored a crushing victory at the Battle of Abukir , capturing and killing the entire enemy army. In August, Napoleon decided to return to Europe, hearing of the political and military crisis in France.
The following day, it was renamed the Army of the Danube. This column eventually became the left flank. It was followed across the Rhine, also at Kehl, by the II.
In March , the Army of the Danube engaged in two major battles, both in the southwestern German theater. At the second battle, in Stockach , on 25 March , the Austrian army achieved a decisive victory over the French forces, and again pushed the French army west.
Jourdan instructed his generals to take up positions in the Black Forest, and he himself established a base at Hornberg. From there, General Jourdan relegated command of the army to his chief of staff, Jean Augustin Ernouf , and traveled to Paris to ask for more and better troops and, ultimately, to request a medical leave. Following the reorganization and change in command, the Army participated in several skirmishes and actions on the eastern part of the Swiss Plateau , including the Battle of Winterthur.
This left Massena in control of northern Switzerland, and closed forced Suvorov into an arduous three-week march into the Vorarlberg, where his troops arrived, starving and exhausted, in mid-October. Napoleon himself invaded Syria from Egypt, but after a failed siege of Acre retreated to Egypt, repelling a British-Turkish invasion. Alerted to the political and military crisis in France, he returned, leaving his army behind, and used his popularity and army support to mount a coup that made him First Consul , the head of the French government.
In Italy, the Austrians under General Melas attacked first, and by the third week in April had advanced to the Var , with Massena and half his army in Genoa besieged by land, by the Austrians and under tight blockade by the Royal Navy. In response Berthier moved — not to the threatened frontier, but to Geneva — and Massena was instructed to hold Genoa until 4 June.
The bulk of the army crossed by the Great St Bernard Pass , still under snow, and by 24 May 40, troops were in the valley of the Po. Artillery was man-hauled over with great effort and ingenuity; however an Austrian-held fort on the Italian side although bypassed by infantry and cavalry prevented most of the artillery reaching the plains of Northern Italy until the start of June. Once over the Alps, Napoleon did not proceed directly to the relief of Genoa. Taking up a strong defensive position at Stradella, he confidently awaited an attempt by the Austrian Army to fight its way out.
Napoleon then faced the possibility that, thanks to the British command of the Mediterranean, far from falling back, the Austrians could instead take Genoa as their new base and be supplied by sea. His defensive posture would not prevent this; he had to find and attack the Austrians before they could regroup.
He therefore advanced from Stradella towards Alessandria , where Melas was, apparently doing nothing. At this point, Melas attacked, and for all the brilliance of the previous campaign, Napoleon found himself at a significant disadvantage in the consequent Battle of Marengo 14 June.
Napoleon and the French came under huge pressure in the early hours of the battle. Melas believed he had already won and turned over delivery of the final blow to a subordinate. Suddenly, the prompt return of a detached French force under Desaix and a vigorous French counter-attack converted the battle into a decisive French victory.
The Austrians lost half of their army, but Desaix was one of the French victims. Melas promptly entered into negotiations, which led to the Austrians evacuating Northern Italy west of the Ticino and suspending military operations in Italy.
Napoleon returned to Paris after the victory, leaving Brune to consolidate in Italy and begin a march toward Austria. In the German theater, the armies of France and Austria faced each other across the Rhine at the beginning of Of these, 25, men were deployed east of Lake Constance Bodensee to protect the Vorarlberg.
Kray posted his main body of 95, soldiers in the L-shaped angle where the Rhine changes direction from a westward flow along the northern border of Switzerland to a northward flow along the eastern border of France. The common Egyptian people used to bathe in the River Nile where as the wealthy men enjoyed separate room for bathing.
A perfumed cleansing cream, produced using oil and lime, was used while taking bath. Using make was a common phenomenon in the Egyptian society. The eye paints, lips, cheeks and nail colors were very popular. Green malachite and galena a gray lead ore were the main ingredients for painting faces where as hena was used to color the nails.
Women used special make up boxes to carry their makeup utilities. At parties, servants used to put the cones of perfumed grease on the heads of the guests. Grease used to offer a cooling effect while melting through the skin of the face. The common Egyptians kept their hair short. Wigs were very popular both for men and women. These were used at parties and official functions. Usually the wool produced from the furs of sheep and human hair were used to make wigs.
Wigs were used to decorate. It also gave protection from the heat. There were special boxes to store those wigs. Ancient Egyptians were very fond of their pretty jewelry sets. They wore rings and amulets to shed injuries and ward off the evil spirits. Pierced earrings, armlets, bracelets, and anklets were common ornaments for both men and women. The wealthy men wore jeweled or beaded collars wesekh , necklaces and pendants. Common people used to embellish themselves with copper or faience made by heating powdered quartz jewelries.
The clothes were designed to fight against the scorching heat of Egypt. Usually clothes of Egyptians were made up of linen. That linen was ranged from the coarse to fine texture.
The River Nile is about 6, km (4, miles) in length and is the longest river in Africa and in the world. Although it is generally associated with Egypt, only 22% of the Nile’s course runs through Egypt.
Easy to read information on Ancient Egypt and Ancient Egyptians to help kids do their homework.
The history of the ancient Egypt dates back to the primeval civilization which was spread on the banks of the River Nile, the lifeline of Egypt. Kids learn about the civilization of Ancient Egypt including the Pharaohs, pyramids, art, government, geography, Nile River, mummies, religion, hieroglyphics, and.
This detailed literature summary also contains Topics for Discussion on Death on the Nile by Agatha Christie. Death on the Nile is a Hercule Poirot mystery novel by the best-selling author Agatha Christie. The story follows the main character, Hercule Poirot, where he embarks on a vacation in Egypt. Egyptian civilization developed along the Nile River in large part because the river’s annual flooding ensured reliable, rich soil for growing crops.